Production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) is an important part of the inflammatory response, but prolonged elevated levels of ROS/RNS as under chronic inflammation can contribute to the development of disease. Monitoring ROS/RNS in living animals is challenging due to the rapid turnover of ROS/RNS and the limited sensitivity and specificity of ROS/RNS probes. We have explored the use of the chemiluminescent probe L-012 for noninvasive imaging of ROS/RNS production during inflammation in living mice. Various inflammatory conditions were induced, and L-012-dependent luminescence was recorded with an ultrasensitive CCD camera. Strong luminescent signals were observed from different regions of the body corresponding to inflammation. The signal was reduced by administration of the SOD mimetic tempol, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME, signifying the requirement for the presence of ROS/RNS. Additionally, the L-012 signal was abolished in mice with a mutation in the Ncf1 gene, encoding a protein in the NADPH oxidase complex 2, which generates ROS/RNS during inflammation. In conclusion, L-012 is well distributed in the mouse body and mediates a strong ROS/RNS-dependent luminescent signal in vivo and is useful for monitoring the development and regulation of inflammation in living organisms. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Free Radical Biology & Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|
Bibliographical noteThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Medical Inflammation Research (013212019)
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- In vivo
- Molecular imaging
- Optical imaging
- Free radical