Inconvenience of living place affects individual hba1c level in a rural area in Japan: Shimane cohre study

Rie Fukuoka, Miwako Takeda, Takafumi Abe, Masayuki Yamasaki, Shinji Kimura, Kenta Okuyama, Minoru Isomura, Toru Nabika

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (SciVal)


Background: It has been shown that the socio-geographical environment of residential areas, such as altitude, affects the health status and health-maintenance behavior of residents. Here, we examined a hypothesis that altitude of residence would influence glycemic control in a general elderly population living in a rural area. Methods: A thousand and sixteen participants living in a mountainous region in Japan were recruited at health examinations. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured in serum as a parameter of glycemic control. The altitude of residence, distance to grocery stores and to medical facilities were estimated using a geographic information system. Results: Linear regression analysis confirmed a significant effect of the altitude on log HbA1c even after adjustment of other demographic and biochemical factors. When the distance to grocery stores or medical facilities were used instead of the altitude in a linear regression analysis, distance to secondary medical facilities alone showed a significant effect on HbA1c. Conclusions: We found a positive correlation between HbA1c level and residential altitude in a rural area of Japan. The altitude seemed to be a parameter substituting in the convenience of residential areas. Socio-geographical factors of living place, such as inconvenience, may influence glycemic control of the residents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1147
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health


  • A cross-sectional study
  • Altitude
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Geographical information system


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