Purpose: To investigate the inflammatory response of current and future potential vitreous substitutes in an experimental in vivo vitrectomy model. Methods: Twenty-five gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed in the right eye of 60 pigmented rabbits, with subsequent injection of 0.5–1.0 ml of Healaflow® (cross-linked hyaluronic acid, n = 12), Bio-Alcamid® (polyalkylimide, n = 8), silicone oil (n = 12), or balanced saline solution (BSS, n = 28). Postoperative clinical evaluation was performed; and the rabbits were sacrificed at 1 day, 1 week, or 1 month. The eyecups were then examined macroscopically; the retinas sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (Htx), and immunohistochemically labeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD45, galectin-3, CD68, and CD20. Unoperated left eyes from treated animals as well as eyes from untreated animals were used as controls. Results: Vitrectomy without major complications was achieved in 46/60 eyes. The remaining 14 eyes were analyzed separately. One eye developed endophthalmitis after 1 week and was excluded. Eyes treated with Healaflow®, silicone oil, and BSS had a comparable appearance macroscopically and in Htx-stained sections, whereas Bio-Alcamid®-injected eyes exhibited increased macroscopic inflammation and severely affected retinas. GFAP upregulation was present in all treatment groups, most prominent in eyes treated with Bio-Alcamid® and silicone oil. Upregulation of CD45 and CD68 in the inner retina and vitreous space was most prominent with Bio-Alcamid® treatment, and these eyes together with their silicone oil–treated counterparts also displayed a stronger upregulation of CD20-labeled cells compared with remaining groups. General upregulation of galectin-3, mainly in the inner retina, was found in all groups. In eyes with perioperative complications, labeling of CD45, CD68, and especially GFAP was comparably high. Conclusions: We here describe differences in the postsurgery inflammatory profiles of existing and potential vitreous substitutes. Bio-Alcamid® and silicone oil display severe signs of gliosis and inflammation, whereas Healaflow® elicits minimal reactions comparable with BSS, highlighting its potential application as a vitreous substitute in a future clinical setting.
|Journal||Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology|
|Early online date||2019 Jan 17|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Hyaluronic acid
- Vitreoretinal surgery
- Vitreous substitute