Infrared Degenerate Four-wave Mixing with Upconversion Detection for Quantitative Gas Sensing

Rasmus L. Pedersen, Zhongshan Li

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2 Citations (SciVal)


We present a protocol for performing gas spectroscopy using infrared degenerated four-wave mixing (IR-DFWM), for the quantitative detection of gas species in the ppm-to-single-percent range. The main purpose of the method is the spatially resolved detection of low-concentration species, which have no transitions in the visible or near-IR spectral range that could be used for detection. IR-DFWM is a nonintrusive method, which is a great advantage in combustion research, as inserting a probe into a flame can change it drastically. The IR-DFWM is combined with upconversion detection. This detection scheme uses sum-frequency generation to move the IR-DFWM signal from the mid-IR to the near-IR region, to take advantage of the superior noise characteristics of silicon-based detectors. This process also rejects most of the thermal background radiation. The focus of the protocol presented here is on the proper alignment of the IR-DFWM optics and on how to align an intracavity upconversion detection system.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of visualized experiments : JoVE
Issue number145
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 22

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics


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