LES/FGM investigation of ignition and flame structure in a gasoline partially premixed combustion engine

Leilei Xu, Yan Zhang, Qinglong Tang, Bengt Johansson, Mingfa Yao, Xue Song Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a joint numerical and experimental study of the ignition process and flame structures in a gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine. The numerical simulation is based on a five-dimension Flamelet-Generated Manifold (5D-FGM) tabulation approach and large eddy simulation (LES). The spray and combustion process in an optical PPC engine fueled with a primary reference fuel (70% iso-octane, 30% n-heptane by volume) are investigated using the combustion model along with laser diagnostic experiments. Different combustion modes, as well as the dominant chemical species and elementary reactions involved in the PPC engines, are identified and visualized using Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA). The results from the LES-FGM model agree well with the experiments regarding the onset of ignition, peak heat release rate and in-cylinder pressure. The LES-FGM model performs even better than a finite-rate chemistry model that integrates the full-set of chemical kinetic mechanism in the simulation, given that the FGM model is computationally more efficient. The results show that the ignition mode plays a dominant role in the entire combustion process. The diffusion flame mode is identified in a thin layer between the ultra fuel-lean unburned mixture and the hot burned gas region that contains combustion intermediates such as CO. The diffusion flame mode contributes to a maximum of 27% of the total heat release in the later stage of combustion, and it becomes vital for the oxidation of relatively fuel-lean mixtures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4851-4860
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number4
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Energy Engineering

Free keywords

  • Chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA)
  • Combustion mode
  • Flamelet-generated manifold (FGM)
  • Large eddy simulation (LES)
  • Partially premixed combustion (PPC)


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