Measurement properties of visual rating of postural orientation errors of the lower extremity - A systematic review and meta-analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: To systematically review measurement properties of visual assessment and rating of Postural Orientation Errors (POEs) in participants with or without lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: A systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. The search was performed in Medline (Pubmed), CINAHL and EMBASE (OVID) databases until August 2016. Studies reporting measurement properties for visual rating of postural orientation during the performance of weight-bearing functional tasks were included. No limits were placed on participant age, sex or whether they had a musculoskeletal disorder affecting the lower extremity. Results: Twenty-eight articles were included, 5 of which included populations with a musculoskeletal disorder. Visual rating of the knee-medial-to-foot position (KMFP) was reliable within and between raters, and meta-analyses showed that this POE was valid against 2D and 3D kinematics in asymptomatic populations. Other segment-specific POEs showed either poor to moderate reliability or there were too few studies to permit synthesis. Intra-rater reliability was at least moderate for POEs within a task whereas inter-rater reliability was at most moderate. Conclusions: Visual rating of KMFP appears to be valid and reliable in asymptomatic adult populations. Measurement properties remain to be determined for POEs other than KMPF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-64
JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
Early online date2017 Apr 18
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Physiotherapy

Free keywords

  • Outcome assessment (health care)
  • Performance-based measures
  • Postural balance
  • Reproducibility of Results


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