Metabolite-induced in vivo fabrication of substrate-free organic bioelectronics

Xenofon Strakosas, Hanne Biesmans, Tobias Abrahamsson, Karin Hellman, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Mary J Donahue, Peter Ekström, Fredrik Ek, Marios Savvakis, Martin Hjort, David Bliman, Mathieu Linares, Caroline Lindholm, Eleni Stavrinidou, Jennifer Y Gerasimov, Daniel T Simon, Roger Olsson, Magnus Berggren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interfacing electronics with neural tissue is crucial for understanding complex biological functions, but conventional bioelectronics consist of rigid electrodes fundamentally incompatible with living systems. The difference between static solid-state electronics and dynamic biological matter makes seamless integration of the two challenging. To address this incompatibility, we developed a method to dynamically create soft substrate-free conducting materials within the biological environment. We demonstrate in vivo electrode formation in zebrafish and leech models, using endogenous metabolites to trigger enzymatic polymerization of organic precursors within an injectable gel, thereby forming conducting polymer gels with long-range conductivity. This approach can be used to target specific biological substructures and is suitable for nerve stimulation, paving the way for fully integrated, in vivo-fabricated electronics within the nervous system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)795-802
JournalScience (New York, N.Y.)
Issue number6634
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 24

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology


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