Milk Membrane Lipids - Dispersions, Emulsions and Interactions with Proteins

Rianne Waninge

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

Abstract

Milk is a dilute aqueous dispersion with a complex mixture of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Milk membrane lipids are a part of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), which covers the fat globules. During dairy processing membrane material is released and surface structure features are altered. The presence of free membrane material as well as various surfaces might influence various technical properties of relevance to the dairy industry. This thesis focuses therefore on the polar milk membrane lipids self-assembly structures in dispersions in oil-based emulsions, and their interactions with the major serum protein, beta-lactoglobulin and the major casein, beta-casein.

The main polar membrane lipids of the MFGM are the zwitterionic lipids: phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM), and the anionic lipids: phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). A higher PE content led to reversed hexagonal structures. At compositions resembling the MFGM a lamellar phase was determined. At this composition mainly unilamellar spherical vesicular structures were visualized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Also bilamellar and multilamellar vesicles were present in addition of salt. Vesicles in cream showed facetted structures, in buttermilk and vitamized skim milk combined vesicle-emulsion aggregates were revealed. Deformed and tubular structures were observed at high PE content, close to the phase boundary of the lamellar to the reversed hexagonal phase.

Combining a serum depletion method with radiolabelled proteins and Cryo-TEM interactions between membrane lipid vesicles and beta-casein or beta-lactoglobulin were investigated. At neutral pH and with a mild heat treatment low adsorbed amount of the proteins were observed, however an increase in adsorbed amount of beta-lactoglobulin and aggregation of the vesicles at lower pH was observed.

Competitive adsorption between milk proteins and membrane lipids at the oil-water interface and how it depends on the formation of emulsions were investigated. Surface structures were described with different models. Adding vesicles to the protein emulsified emulsion led to adsorption / deposition of the vesicles at the oil-water interface. Furthermore, adding protein to a membrane lipid emulsified emulsion only a small amount of protein was adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Competitive adsorption at the oil-water interface was observed when beta-casein or beta-lactoglobulin was emulsified together with the membrane lipids.

This study shows that the kinetics aspects can control the structures rather than the thermodynamic equilibrium, and that this may result in structures more complex than an adsorbed monolayer. Hence, it can be expected that procedures, such as the mixing order, during emulsion preparation is of crucial importance to the emulsification performance.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor
Awarding Institution
  • Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition
Supervisors/Advisors
  • [unknown], [unknown], Supervisor, External person
Award date2004 Apr 29
Publisher
ISBN (Print)91-628-6014-3
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Bibliographical note

Defence details

Date: 2004-04-29
Time: 10:30
Place: Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lecture hall B, Getingevägen 60, Lund, Lund Institute of Technolgy.

External reviewer(s)

Name: Klösgen, Beate
Title: Dr.
Affiliation: Physics Department, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Article: I.Phase equilibria of model milk membrane lipid systemsRianne Waninge, Tommy Nylander, Marie Paulsson and Björn BergenståhlChem. Phys. Lip. 125 (2003) 59-68.

Article: II.Milk membrane lipid vesicle structures studied with Cryo-TEMRianne Waninge, Tommy Nylander, Marie Paulsson and Björn BergenståhlColloid Surf. B: Biointerfaces 31 (2003) 257-264.

Article: III.Cryo-TEM of isolated milk fat globule membrane structures in creamRianne Waninge, Evelin Kalda, Marie Paulsson, Tommy Nylander and Björn BergenståhlPhys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6 (2004), 1518-1523.

Article: IV.Interactions between vesicular model milk membrane lipids and proteinsRianne Waninge, Kamaran Chaomar, Marie Paulsson, Tommy Nylander and Björn BergenståhlSubmitted to Chem. Phys. Lip. (2004).

Article: V.Competitive adsorption between beta-casein or beta-lactoglobulin and model milk membrane lipids at oil-water interfacesRianne Waninge, Pieter Walstra, Jan Bastiaans, Hans Nieuwenhuijse, Tommy Nylander, Marie Paulsson and Björn BergenståhlSubmitted to J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004).

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Food Engineering

Keywords

  • Food and drink technology
  • Model milk membrane lipids
  • Emulsions
  • Vesicles
  • Cryo-TEM
  • Milk fat globule membrane
  • MFGM
  • Livsmedelsteknik

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