Moderators of short- and long-term outcomes in panic control treatment and panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that externalizing and internalizing helpfulness beliefs and learning styles at baseline moderate panic severity and overall mental illness as short-term and long-term outcomes of two panic-focused psychotherapies, Panic Control Treatment (PCT) and Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP).
Method: Participants were 108 adults with DSM-IV Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia (PD/A) who were randomized to treatment in a trial of PCT and PFPP. Piece-wise/segmented multilevel modeling was used to test three-way interactions (Treatments x Moderator x Time), with participants and therapists as random factors. Outcome variables were clinician-rated panic severity and self-rated mental illness post-treatment and during follow-up.
Results: Patients’ externalizing (but not internalizing) helpfulness beliefs moderated mental illness outcomes during follow-up (but not during treatment); low levels of Externalization were facilitative for PFPP but not PCT. Internalizing and externalizing helpfulness beliefs and learning style did not moderate clinician-rated panic severity, whether short- or long-term.
Conclusions: These results suggest that helpfulness beliefs and learning style have limited use in assignment to either PCT or PFPP for PD/A. Although further research is needed, low levels of helpfulness beliefs about externalizing coping may play a role in mental illness outcomes for PFPP.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalPsychotherapy Research
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024 Jan 30

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Psychiatry
  • Psychology

Free keywords

  • panic disorder (PD)
  • Agoraphobia
  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • psychodynamic therapy (PDT)
  • randomized controlled trial
  • moderators of outcome


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