On the Relations between Driving Patterns, Exhaust Emissions and Network Characteristics in Urban Driving

Lena Smidfelt-Rosqvist

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

Abstract

The planning and design of street networks in cities influence driving behaviour and give rise to variations in driving patterns (i.e., speed and acceleration profiles) that affect exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The primary objective of this study has been to use real-life driving patterns to investigate how the characteristics of street networks influence fuel consumption and vehicular emissions. The effects of imposing limits on driving patterns and of aggregating them in single speed profiles were also explored. The analyses and results are based on four different driving pattern studies that yielded both experimental and ob-servational data. The use of samples of extended driving patterns and of regression analysis made it possible to estimate the magnitude of the impact of different characteristics of street networks. It was found that there were considerable discrepancies between exhaust estimates based on a single mean speed profile aggregated from a sample of driving patterns and estimates based on the full sample of driving patterns. Consequently aggregated profiles must be treated cautiously when estimating emissions. It was also found that specific types of streets, calming measures or intersections can both add to and reduce exhaust emissions. Speed reducing measures showed effects leading to the conclusion that they on an overall total have a reducing effect on exhaust emissions. There is often a discrepancy between the overall influence and the expected local effects. Behavioural adaptation between successive driving environments was also found, supporting the conclusion that driving is not only influenced by the current environment but also by the preceding. Investigations of the overall environmental effects of driving patterns should take into account not only local effects but also the influence of the adjoining environment.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor
Awarding Institution
  • Transport and Roads
Supervisors/Advisors
  • [unknown], [unknown], Supervisor, External person
Award date2003 Mar 14
Publisher
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Bibliographical note

Defence details

Date: 2003-03-14
Time: 10:15
Place: V:A, V-building, Lund Institute of Technology

External reviewer(s)

Name: Bell, Margaret C.
Title: Professor
Affiliation: [unknown]

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Articles included in this dissertation:<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 1 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. & Ericsson, E. (2003) ‘Using Driving Patterns for Emission Estimations: When Should One Calculate Averages?’ Submitted to Air Pollution, the Eleventh International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, 17–19 September 2003, Catania, Italy.<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 2 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (1999) ‘Emission and fuel consumption factors in different street configuration designs’. Published in the Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Transport and Air Pollution, 31 May–2 June 1999, Graz, Austria.<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 3 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (2000) ‘Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in residential areas with different characteristics’ Presented at the conference Road Safety on Three Continents, 20–22 September 2000, Pretoria, South Africa.<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 4 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (2003) ‘Exhaust emissions in residential areas with different street network configurations’. Published in the Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment, 10–12 March 2003, Crete, Greece.<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 5 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. & Ericsson, E. (2003) ‘Non-local effects of external environment on driving patterns’. Published in the Proceedings of the 82nd TRB Annual Meeting, 12–16 January 2003 (resubmitted for Transportation Research Record).<br/><br/>

Article: Paper 6 Smidfelt Rosqvist, L. (2002) ‘Influence of external street characteristics on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption’. Submitted to Transportation Research Part D

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Infrastructure Engineering

Keywords

  • traffic calming
  • intersections
  • driving adaptation
  • speed limits
  • Road transport technology
  • driving behaviour
  • Vägtransportteknik
  • overall effects
  • trip-long
  • non-local effects

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