Operando Surface Characterization of InP Nanowire p-n Junctions

Sarah R. McKibbin, Jovana Colvin, Andrea Troian, Johan V. Knutsson, James L. Webb, Gaute Otnes, Kai Dirscherl, Hikmet Sezen, Matteo Amati, Luca Gregoratti, Magnus T. Borgström, Anders Mikkelsen, Rainer Timm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (SciVal)


We present an in-depth analysis of the surface band alignment and local potential distribution of InP nanowires containing a p-n junction using scanning probe and photoelectron microscopy techniques. The depletion region is localized to a 15 nm thin surface region by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and an electronic shift of up to 0.5 eV between the n- A nd p-doped nanowire segments was observed and confirmed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Scanning photoelectron microscopy then allowed us to measure the intrinsic chemical shift of the In 3d, In 4d, and P 2p core level spectra along the nanowire and the effect of operating the nanowire diode in forward and reverse bias on these shifts. Thanks to the high-resolution techniques utilized, we observe fluctuations in the potential and chemical energy of the surface along the nanowire in great detail, exposing the sensitive nature of nanodevices to small scale structural variations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)887-895
Number of pages9
JournalNano Letters
Issue number2
Early online date2019 Dec 31
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • InP nanowire
  • KPFM
  • pn-junction
  • SPEM
  • STM
  • surface potential


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