Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography with computerised tomography imaging (SRI) has a high sensitivity for the detection of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (siNET), which makes it ideal for follow-up. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether follow-up with SRI in patients with siNET led to any change in the treatment of the patient and if patient and/or tumour factors were associated with such change. Adults with siNET who had undergone at least two SRI scans between 2013 and 2021 were identified. Data on age, sex, comorbidities, tumour stage, grade, and most recent levels of serum Chromogranin A (CgA) and 24-h urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) before each SRI scan were obtained. The major change was defined as new treatment previously not received or discontinuation of ongoing treatment. Univariate and multivariate mixed models logistic regression on variables with a presumed biological relationship with major change and with backwards stepwise exclusion of variables with p > .1 was performed. A total of 164 patients with siNET diagnosis had undergone 570 SRI scans. The median follow-up was 3.1 years. Only 82 of 570, 14%, of SRI scans led to a major change in treatment. Female sex, age below 75 years, elevated or missing CgA, elevated or missing urine 5-HIAA, progress on last SRI scan and distant extrahepatic disease were all independently associated with increased odds ratios for major change after follow-up with SRI. A small proportion of SRI scans (14%) led to a major change in treatment. Six independent risk factors with increased odds of major change, all available before each SRI scan, were identified. While validation of these risk factors is needed in a separate cohort, these findings could help clinicians individualise follow-up for siNET patients in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13396
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroendocrinology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024 Apr 28

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cancer and Oncology
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging

Free keywords

  • chromogranin A
  • follow-up
  • neuroendocrine tumours
  • positron emission tomography
  • small intestine


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