Oral Challenges with Four Apple Cultivars Result in Significant Differences in Oral Allergy Symptoms

Hilde Nybom, Charlotte Cervin-Hoberg, Morgan Andersson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: We analyzed the hypoallergenic potential of a recently bred apple selection with unusually low content of Mal d 1, using an oral challenge model with three additional apple cultivars for comparison. Methods: Sixty-six birch pollen-allergic individuals with a history of oral allergy syndrome after apple intake were subjected to a double-blind oral provocation with two apple cultivars (B:0654 and 'Discovery'). Thirteen also tested two other apple cultivars ('Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster'). Three doses were given consecutively, 30 min apart: 10 g without peel, and 10 and 50 g with peel. A final assessment was conducted 30 min after the last intake. Oral symptoms were graded from 0 to 5. Total oral symptom score (TOS) included all scores for each cultivar at all time points. Results: B:0654 induced significantly higher TOS than 'Discovery' when tested by 66 individuals, in spite of its lower Mal d 1 content. TOS values were higher in females and increased with increasing age of the individuals when challenged with 'Discovery'. Among the 13 individuals who tested all four cultivars, B:0654 produced a higher score after the second dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie'. This was also the case after the third dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster', and again 30 min after the last intake compared to each of the other three cultivars, as well as a higher TOS compared to each of the other three cultivars (all p <0.01). Conclusions: Our test was safe and well tolerated, and produced significant differences among the apple cultivars. Contrary to expectations, B:0654 was less well tolerated than the other three cultivars. Copyright (c) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)258-264
JournalInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy


  • Apple
  • Birch pollen
  • Mal d 1
  • Oral allergy syndrome
  • Oral provocation


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