Ordered arrays of low-dimensional Au and Pd: synthesis and in situ observations

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

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Abstract

Electrodeposition of metals in templates of nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide (NP-AAO) is a versatile way of fabricating ordered arrays of metal nanowires. Thanks to the self-arranged long-range hexagonal order of the pores, electrodeposition in NP-AAO is an easily scalable bottom-up synthesis route and an attractive alternative to traditional top-down fabrication methods such as electron beam lithography.
Since NP-AAO is a non-conductive medium and since it is potentially soluble in non-neutral pH solutions, the electrodeposition of metals in NP-AAO represents a challenge. These aspects are discussed in this thesis, aiming to establish a reproducible and reliable protocol for the electrodeposition of Au and Pd.
By using ex situ x-ray diffraction, it has been found that the growth of Au and Pd in the confined environment of nano-pores leads (i) to a deformation of the crystalline structure, as the lattice constant is smaller along the nanowire radius and larger along the nanowire axis, compared to the bulk lattice constant, and (ii) to a crystallite size anisotropy: it is limited by the pore radius in the horizontal direction and it is larger in the direction of growth.
The electrochemical growth of Au and Pd nanowires was followed in situ by x-ray scattering methods. In the case of Au nanowires, the time-resolved measurements revealed that the anisotropy of the lattice parameter progresses as a function of time, which suggests that the strain state of the nanomaterials can be artificially selected. This findings might be beneficial in the strain-engineering of Au nanoelectrode arrays for electrocatalysis. In the case of Pd nanowires, the measurements revealed strain variations, as well as phase transitions attributed to the existence of alpha- and beta-phase Pd hydride in the NP-AAO template, due to the exposure of Pd to hydrogen evolved at the working electrode. These findings suggest that Pd in NP-AAO has potential applications in the design of hydrogen storage devices.
Original languageEnglish
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Lundgren, Edvin, Supervisor
  • Harlow, Gary, Assistant supervisor
  • Borgström, Magnus, Assistant supervisor
Award date2023 Jan 27
Publisher
ISBN (Print)978-91-8039-480-2
ISBN (electronic) 978-91-8039-479-6
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Defence details
Date: 2023-01-27
Time: 09:15
Place: Rydbergssalen
External reviewer(s)
Name: Innocenti, Massimo
Title: Professor
Affiliation: University of Florence
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Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Nano Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Free keywords

  • nanowires (NWs)
  • nanorods
  • nanoparticles
  • Au
  • Pd
  • Al
  • Al2O3
  • anodization
  • nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide
  • powder diffraction
  • x-ray diffraction
  • x-ray scattering
  • SAXS
  • WAXS
  • grazing-incidence
  • two-dimensional surface optical reflectance

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