Pain burden in children with cerebral palsy (CPPain) survey: Study protocol

Randi Dovland Andersen, Lara Genik, Ann I Alriksson-Schmidt, Agneta Anderzen-Carlsson, Chantel Burkitt, Sindre K Bruflot, Christine T Chambers, Reidun B Jahnsen, Ira Jeglinsky-Kankainen, Olav Aga Kildal, Kjersti Ramstad, Jordan Sheriko, Frank J Symons, Lars Wallin, Guro L Andersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pain is a significant health concern for children living with cerebral palsy (CP). There are no population-level or large-scale multi-national datasets using common measures characterizing pain experience and interference (ie, pain burden) and management practices for children with CP. The aim of the CPPain survey is to generate a comprehensive understanding of pain burden and current management of pain to change clinical practice in CP. The CPPain survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study. Researchers plan to recruit approximately 1400 children with CP (primary participants) across several countries over 6-12 months using multimodal recruitment strategies. Data will be collected from parents or guardians of children with CP (0-17 years) and from children with CP (8-17 years) who are able to self-report. Siblings (12-17 years) will be invited to participate as controls. The CPPain survey consists of previously validated and study-specific questionnaires addressing demographic and diagnostic information, pain experience, pain management, pain interference, pain coping, activity and participation in everyday life, nutritional status, mental health, health-related quality of life, and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pain and access to pain care. The survey will be distributed primarily online. Data will be analyzed using appropriate statistical methods for comparing groups. Stratification will be used to investigate subgroups, and analyses will be adjusted for appropriate sociodemographic variables. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics and the Research Ethics Board at the University of Minnesota in USA have approved the study. Ethics approval in Canada, Sweden, and Finland is pending. In addition to dissemination through peer-reviewed journals and conferences, findings will be communicated through the CPPain Web site (, Web sites directed toward users or clinicians, social media, special interest groups, stakeholder engagement activities, articles in user organization journals, and presentations in public media.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-22
JournalPaediatric & Neonatal Pain
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar

Bibliographical note

© 2021 The Authors. Paediatric and Neonatal Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Pediatrics


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