Pan-kinome of Legionella expanded by a bioinformatics survey

Marianna Krysińska, Bartosz Baranowski, Bartłomiej Deszcz, Krzysztof Pawłowski, Marcin Gradowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The pathogenic Legionella bacteria are notorious for delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cell with the aim of disturbing and hijacking cellular processes for their benefit. Despite intensive studies, many effectors remain uncharacterized. Motivated by the richness of Legionella effector repertoires and their oftentimes atypical biochemistry, also by several known atypical Legionella effector kinases and pseudokinases discovered recently, we undertook an in silico survey and exploration of the pan-kinome of the Legionella genus, i.e., the union of the kinomes of individual species. In this study, we discovered 13 novel (pseudo)kinase families (all are potential effectors) with the use of non-standard bioinformatic approaches. Together with 16 known families, we present a catalog of effector and non-effector protein kinase-like families within Legionella, available at We analyze and discuss the likely functional roles of the novel predicted kinases. Notably, some of the kinase families are also present in other bacterial taxa, including other pathogens, often phylogenetically very distant from Legionella. This work highlights Nature’s ingeniousness in the pathogen–host arms race and offers a useful resource for the study of infection mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21782
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Microbiology in the medical area


Dive into the research topics of 'Pan-kinome of Legionella expanded by a bioinformatics survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this