Particle emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine as ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode: a laboratory study on fossil and renewable fuels

Kimmo Korhonen, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Vilhelm Malmborg, Axel Eriksson, Louise Gren, Maja Novakovic, Sam Shamun, Panu Karjalainen, Lassi Markkula, Joakim Pagels, Birgitta Svenningsson, Martin Tunér, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, Annele Virtanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We studied ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine using three different types of fuel. The polydisperse particle emissions were sampled during engine operation and introduced to a continuous-flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) instrument at a constant relative humidity RHwater=110 %, while the temperature was ramped between −43 and −32 ∘C (T scan). The tested fuels were EN 590 compliant low-sulfur fossil diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and rapeseed methyl ester (RME); all were tested without blending. Sampling was carried out at different stages in the engine exhaust aftertreatment system, with and without simulated atmospheric processing using an oxidation flow reactor. In addition to ice nucleation experiments, we used supportive instrumentation to characterize the emitted particles for their physicochemical properties and presented six parameters. We found that the studied emissions contained no significant concentrations of ice-nucleating particles likely to be of atmospheric relevance. The substitution of fossil diesel with renewable fuels, using different emission aftertreatment systems such as a diesel oxidation catalyst, and photochemical aging of total exhaust had only minor effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1615–1631
Number of pages17
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume22
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 2

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Energy Engineering

Free keywords

  • Particle emissions
  • Heavy-duty engine
  • diesel
  • HVO
  • RME
  • Ice-nucleating particles

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