Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and modern aspects of complications and antibiotic treatment

Magnus Wagenius, Jasmine Borglin, Marcin Popiolek, Andreas Forsvall, Johan Stranne, Adam Linder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The incidence of urinary stones is increasing across the globe. Surgical treatment includes extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterolithotripsy (URS), percutaneous nephrolitotomy (PCNL) and rarely open surgery. This single center study describes complications to PCNL focusing on infections, bacterial growth/resistance and antibiotic prophylaxis/treatment. Materials and methods: All patients treated for kidney stones with PCNL at Ängelholm Hospital in north-western Scania, Sweden from January 2009 to December 2015 were included. A dipstick test and a bacterial culture was made on all patients. Kidney stones were analysed for composition and cultured for bacteria. Results: In total, 186 patients underwent PCNL, all receiving perioperative antibiotics. Thirty percent (56/186) had a positive urinary culture taken before surgery and 33.3% (62/186) had positive stone culture. The concordance between urinary and stone culture was 57.1%. Both positive stone and urinary culture increased the risk of complications after surgery (p = 0.002 and p = 0.017, respectively). Complications occurred in 16% (30/186). Eight patients (4.3%) developed sepsis. The most common bacteria in urine were Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli, both 20%. The most common stone-bacteria reported was Enterococcus faecalis (26%). Conclusion: This study has a total complication rate of 16%, approximately 10% of those are severe. The most common complication to PCNL was infection (60%), followed by bleeding (5.4%), reoperation (1.6%) and pain (0.5%). The high prevalence of E. faecalis might need to be considered, however the results should be validated in a larger cohort, possibly with a higher rate of antibiotic resistance, before a change of guidelines regarding prophylactic antibiotics could be proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-170
Number of pages9
JournalScandinavian Journal of Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 25

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Surgery

Free keywords

  • complications
  • infection
  • ureteric stone
  • Ureteroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and modern aspects of complications and antibiotic treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this