Physical Bounds of Antennas

Mats Gustafsson, Doruk Tayli, Marius Cismasu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


Design of small antennas is challenging because fundamental physics limits the antennas performance. Physical bounds provide basic restrictions on the antenna performance solely expressed in the available antenna design space. These bounds offer antenna designers a priori information about the feasibility of antenna designs and a figure of merit for different antenna designs. Here, an overview of physical bounds on antennas and the development from circumscribing spheres to arbitrary shaped regions and embedded antennas are presented. The underlying assumptions for the methods based on circuit models, mode expansions, forward scattering, and current optimization are illustrated and their pros and cons are discussed. The physical bounds are compared with numerical data for several antennas.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Antenna Technologies
EditorsZhi Ning Chen
ISBN (Print)978-981-4560-75-7
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Free keywords

  • Physical bounds
  • Limitations
  • Stored energy
  • Q-factor
  • Small antennas
  • Circuit models
  • Mode expansions
  • Forward scattering
  • Sum rules
  • Convex optimization


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