Background: Discrimination of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction with pulmonary hypertension (HFpEF-PH) from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is crucial for clinical management but may be challenging due to similarities in clinical and comorbid characteristics. We aimed to investigate tumour and metabolism related proteins in differentiating HFpEF-PH from PAH. Methods: Sixty-nine tumour and metabolism plasma proteins were analysed with proximity extension assay in heathy controls (n = 20), patients with PAH (n = 48) and LHF-PH (n = 67) [HFpEF-PH (n = 31) and HF reduced EF-PH (n = 36)]. Haemodynamics were assessed with right heart catheterization. Results: The plasma levels of alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were higher in HFpEF-PH compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01), HFrEF-PH (p < 0.05), and PAH (p < 0.001). Glyoxalase I levels were higher in HFpEF-PH and HFrEF-PH compared to controls (p < 0.001) and PAH (p < 0.001). Each of plasma AMBP, LPL, and glyoxalase I, adjusted for age and sex in multivariable logistic regression models, could differentiate HFpEF-PH from PAH, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.81, 0.84 and 0.79, respectively. The combination of AMBP, LPL and glyoxalse I yielded the largest AUC of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (0.79–0.95)] in discriminating HFpEF-PH from PAH, with a sensitivity of 87.1% and a specificity of 85.4%. In HFpEF-PH, the plasma levels of AMBP correlated with pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (rs = −0.42, p = 0.018). Conclusions: Plasma AMBP, LPL and glyoxalase I may facilitate the distinction of HFpEF-PH from PAH. Larger clinical studies are encouraged to confirm and validate our findings.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease