The antral hormone gastrin and its intestinal relative, cholecystokinin (CCK), are pivotal in the regulation of gastric functions. Other gastric hormones like ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), however, also contribute to the regulation of acid secretion, motility, and feeding. Because gastrin and CCK are crucial for gastric homeostasis, we examined how loss of gastrin alone and gastrin plus CCK affected the expression of ghrelin, IAPP, and PYY and ghrelin secretion. The expression of ghrelin, IAPP, and PYY and the CCK-A receptor genes were examined in both gastrin and gastrin-CCK double-knockout (KO) mice using immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. Ghrelin concentrations in plasma were measured using RIA. Gastrin and CCK were infused in gastrin-CCK KO mice using osmotic minipumps. The number of ghrelin cells and ghrelin gene expression were unaffected, albeit the ghrelin cells were located closer to the base of the glands in both KO mouse strains when freely fed. However, lack of both gastrin and CCK attenuated fasting-induced ghrelin expression and secretion. Fundic ghrelin cells expressed the CCK-A receptor, and ghrelin expression increased after CCK infusion. Furthermore, gastric IAPP and PYY expression as well as the number of IAPP- and PYY-containing cells were reduced in both gastrin and gastrin-CCK KO mice. Gastrin infusion increased gastric IAPP but not PYY expression. In conclusion, lack of gastrin plus CCK but not gastrin alone reduced ghrelin secretion in response to fasting through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Both gastrin and combined gastrin-CCK deficiency reduced the gastric IAPP and PYY expression.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Endocrinology and Diabetes