Regioselectivity control was studied in palladium catalysed hydroxycarbonylation of styrene in neat water with water-soluble phosphines, mostly trisulfonated triphenylphosphine, TPPTS, but also N-bis(N', N'-diethyl-2-aminoethyl)-4-aminomethylphenyl-diphenylphosphine, N3P. The factor giving the highest changes in regioselectivity in the TPPTS system, under similar reaction conditions, is the temperature. In the N3P case, only a minor variation in the n/i ratio as a function of temperature is observed. In situ normal- and high-pressure NMR experiments were performed to obtain further information about the catalytic cycle and the reaction intermediates. Two palladium hydride intermediates, a palladium eta(3)-benzylic complex and both the branched and linear palladium acyl complexes were identified in the HP NMR experiments. The hydroxycarbonylation in water using styrene as a substrate operates using a hydride mechanism for pathways leading to both linear and branched product. Insertion of styrene in the palladium - hydride bond gives an eta(3)-benzyl compound. A high CO pressure gives a kinetic preference for the iso-acyl in the next step. In the TPPTS system, at moderate temperatures, the hydrolysis of the iso-acyl is faster than its conversion to the thermodynamically more stable n-acyl. A low n/i therefore requires high pressures and reasonably low temperatures. The N3P ligand always favours the linear product since isomerisation of the iso-acyl to the n-acyl in this system is fast under all conditions investigated.
Bibliographical noteThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Organic chemistry (S/LTH) (011001240), Department of Chemistry (011001220)
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Organic Chemistry