Aims/hypothesis: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) frequently results in remission of type 2 diabetes as well as exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Here, we assessed RYGB-induced transcriptomic alterations in the small intestine and investigated how they were related to the regulation of GLP-1 production and secretion in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Human jejunal samples taken perisurgically and 1 year post RYGB (n=13) were analysed by RNA-seq. Guided by bioinformatics analysis we targeted four genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, which we confirmed to be expressed in human L cells, for potential involvement in GLP-1 regulation using siRNAs in GLUTag and STC-1 cells. Gene expression analyses, GLP-1 secretion measurements, intracellular calcium imaging and RNA-seq were performed in vitro. OGTTs were performed in C57BL/6j and iScd1 −/− mice and immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses were performed ex vivo. Results: Gene Ontology (GO) analysis identified cholesterol biosynthesis as being most affected by RYGB. Silencing or chemical inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, was found to reduce Gcg expression and secretion of GLP-1 by GLUTag and STC-1 cells. Scd1 knockdown also reduced intracellular Ca2+ signalling and membrane depolarisation. Furthermore, Scd1 mRNA expression was found to be regulated by NEFAs but not glucose. RNA-seq of SCD1 inhibitor-treated GLUTag cells identified altered expression of genes implicated in ATP generation and glycolysis. Finally, gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis of the jejunum of the intestine-specific Scd1 knockout mouse model, iScd1 −/−, revealed a twofold higher L cell density and a twofold increase in Gcg mRNA expression. Conclusions/interpretation: RYGB caused robust alterations in the jejunal transcriptome, with genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis being most affected. Our data highlight SCD as an RYGB-regulated L cell constituent that regulates the production and secretion of GLP-1. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cell and Molecular Biology

Free keywords

  • Gastric bypass surgery
  • GLP-1
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Intestine
  • Obesity
  • Remission
  • RNA sequencing
  • SCD
  • Stearoyl-CoA desaturase
  • Type 2 diabetes


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