Surgery or radiation therapy remain the standard curative treatments for newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Nonetheless, these aggressive treatments are associated with decreased quality of life with altered sexual and urinary functions. The objective was a systematic review of active surveillance protocols to investigate the role of histopathology and molecular markers in the active surveillance of prostate cancer. Medline was searched using the following terms: prostate cancer, active surveillance and expectant management. Selection criteria, follow-up strategies and outcomes. Using modern risk stratification, several centres have gained significant experience in identifying patients with a low risk of prostate cancer progression and have adopted an active surveillance program with delayed curative therapy. Interestingly, only limited numbers of patients under active surveillance require additional treatment. Recent data suggest that delayed treatment does not appear to alter the clinical outcome among those highly selected patients. The future and conclusions. A better understanding of the molecular determinants of prostate cancer behaviour would not only enable healthcare professionals to identify which cases need aggressive treatment but, perhaps more importantly, would also indicate potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Cancer and Oncology