Numerous sandstone-hosted Pb-Zn deposits occur along the present-day erosional front of the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides. The largest deposit is Laisvall (64.3 Mt at 4.0% Pb, 0.6% Zn and 9.0 g/t Ag) and since mineralisations generally share similar characteristics (reminding of both SEDEX and MVT-style) the term Laisvall-type has often been used. Typically, mineralised zones occur along sedimentary bedding and consist of disseminated galena and sphalerite and lesser amounts of calcite, fluorite, baryte, pyrite and sericite forming a cement that fill interstitial pores in Neoproterozoic/Eocambrian (e.g. Laisvall) to Cambrian (e.g. Vassbo) sandstones. Deposits occur both in autochtonous and allochtonous sedimentary rocks, and a broad consensus exists about their epigenetic nature, their spatial relationships to syn-sedimentary faults and that ore fluids have scavenged metals from the crystalline basement. However, the detailed ore depositional history and the timing of ore deposition have remained more controversial. New analyses aimed to complement earlier Rb-Sr data (crush-leach technique using sphalerite) fail to support a published three-point isochron age of 467 ± 5 Ma. This is probably due to syn-ore mixing between fluids carrying isotopically variable strontium and inherited problems to analyse sphalerite grains that strictly were deposited from a single ore pulse. Tentatively, strontium in the ores originate from a mix of components derived from the basement, seawater and the local sedimentary host sequences. The lead component has highly radiogenic compositions, and data define sub-parallel linear arrays interpreted to essentially represent mixing of isotopically different types of lead released from regional basement rocks. There are obvious similarities when comparing features of deposits representing two Pb-Zn ore styles, the sandstone-hosted dissemination and the fracture-controlled mineralisation in the granite-dominated basement occurring further east of the Caledonian margin. These include low temperature brines responsible for mineral deposition, the mineralogy and the nature of Rb-Sr and Pb isotope data. We suggest that these types of mineralisation have a common origin and time of emplacement, but it is elusive to propose a well-constrained age. Nonetheless, field observations and other evidence suggest that ore formation is due to large-scale fluid flow triggered by the transition from an extensional to compressional tectonic setting at about 500 Ma. Connected to this mid-Cambrian stage was the development of syn-sedimentary faults and fractures in the basement and in overlying consolidated sandstones. The opening of such zones of weakness enabled a movement of ore-forming fluids infilling pore space in sandstones (disseminated ore) and fractures in the basement (vein ore).
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Fluid mixing