We present a modulated gradient spin-echo method, which uses a train of sinusoidally shaped gradient pulses separated by 180 degrees radio-frequency (RF) pulses. The RF pulses efficiently refocus chemical shifts and de-phasing due to susceptibility differences, resulting in undistorted, high-resolution diffusion weighted spectra. This allows for the simultaneous spectral characterization of the diffusion of several molecular species with different chemical shifts. The technique is robust against susceptibility artifacts, field inhomogeneity and imperfections in the gradient generating equipment. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated by measuring the diffusion of water, oil, and water-soluble salt in a highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsion. The diffusion of water and salt reveal precise information about the droplet size distribution below the mum-range. Common droplet size distribution explains both the data for water with finite long-range diffusion and the data for salt with negligible long-range diffusion. The results of water diffusion show that the technique is efficient in deconvolving the effects of molecular exchange between droplets and restricted diffusion within droplets. The effects of water exchange suggest that droplets of different sizes are uniformly distributed within the sample.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Physical Chemistry