Strong Binding of C-Glycosylic1,2-Thiodisaccharides to Galectin-3─Enthalpy-Driven Affinity Enhancement by Water-Mediated Hydrogen Bonds

László Lázár, Anastasia S Tsagkarakou, George Stravodimos, George Kontopidis, Hakon Leffler, Ulf J Nilsson, László Somsák, Demetres D Leonidas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Galectin-3 is involved in multiple pathways of many diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and diabetes, and it is a validated pharmaceutical target for the development of novel therapeutic agents to address unmet medical needs. Novel 1,2-thiodisaccharides with a C-glycosylic functionality were synthesized by the photoinitiated thiol-ene click reaction of O-peracylated 1-C-substituted glycals and 1-thio-glycopyranoses. Subsequent global deprotection yielded test compounds, which were studied for their binding to human galectin-3 by fluorescence polarization and isothermal titration calorimetry to show low micromolar K d values. The best inhibitor displayed a K d value of 8.0 μM. An analysis of the thermodynamic binding parameters revealed that the binding Gibbs free energy (Δ G) of the new inhibitors was dominated by enthalpy (Δ H). The binding mode of the four most efficient 1,2-thiodisaccharides was also studied by X-ray crystallography that uncovered the unique role of water-mediated hydrogen bonds in conferring enthalpy-driven affinity enhancement for the new inhibitors. This 1,2-thiodisaccharide-type scaffold represents a new lead for galectin-3 inhibitor discovery and offers several possibilities for further development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12420-12431
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume66
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Sept 14

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Free keywords

  • Humans
  • Galectin 3
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Galectins
  • Thermodynamics
  • Water

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