Background: Previous studies of the natural history of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency are mostly based on highly selected patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the mortality of PiZZ individuals. Methods: Data from 1339 adult PiZZ individuals from the Swedish National AAT Deficiency Registry, followed from 1991 to 2008, were analysed. Forty-three percent of these individuals were identified by respiratory symptoms (respiratory cases), 32% by liver diseases and other diseases (non-respiratory cases) and 25% by screening (screened cases). Smoking status was divided into two groups: smokers 737 (55%) and 602 (45%) never-smokers. Results: During the follow-up 315 individuals (24%) died. The standardised mortality rate (SMR) for respiratory cases was 4.70 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.10-5.40), 3.0 (95% CI 2.35-3.70) for the non-respiratory cases and 2.30 (95% CI 1.46-3.46) for the screened cases. The smokers had a higher mortality risk than never-smokers, with a SMR of 4.80 (95% CI 4.20-5.50) for the smokers and 2.80(95% CI 2.30-3.40) for the never-smokers. The Rate Ratio (RR) was 1.70 (95% CI 1.35-2.20). Also among the screened cases, the mortality risk for the smokers was significantly higher than in the general Swedish population (SMR 3.40 (95% CI 1.98-5.40). Conclusion: Smokers with severe AAT deficiency, irrespective of mode of identification, have a significantly higher mortality risk than the general Swedish population.
- Respiratory Medicine and Allergy