Symptoms and signs in single and mixed genital infections

Per-Anders Mårdh, K Tchoudomirova, S Elshibly, D Hellberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (SciVal)


OBJECTIVE: To compare symptoms and signs in women with single and mixed genital infections. METHODS: The study population comprised 996 apparently healthy women. Gynecological symptoms and signs were looked for and diagnostics for the most prevalent gynecological infections were made. RESULTS: When co-infections were excluded, chlamydial infections, bacterial vaginosis and cervical human papillomavirus infections were associated with a fishy malodor; for the two former conditions an easily bleeding ectopy was also found. Vaginal candidosis showed characteristic symptoms and signs. Genital warts were associated with dysuria, general and lower abdominal pain. Out of 494 women with a genital infection, 112 (22.7%) had a mixed infection, which in some cases influenced symptoms and signs. CONCLUSION: Many women who consider themselves gynecologically healthy, may nevertheless harbor one or more infectious agents. The need to exclude multiple infections is obvious. Positive predictive values were for specific symptoms and signs were generally low.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-152
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine


  • Symptoms
  • Signs
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Vaginitis
  • Mixed infections


Dive into the research topics of 'Symptoms and signs in single and mixed genital infections'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this