Synchronizing gas injections and time-resolved data acquisition for perturbation-enhanced APXPS experiments

Evgeniy A. Redekop, Niclas Johansson, Esko Kokkonen, Samuli Urpelainen, Felipe Lopes Da Silva, Mikko Kaipio, Heta Elisa Nieminen, Foqia Rehman, Ville Miikkulainen, Mikko Ritala, Unni Olsbye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An experimental approach is described in which well-defined perturbations of the gas feed into an Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS) cell are fully synchronized with the time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data acquisition. These experiments unlock new possibilities for investigating the properties of materials and chemical reactions mediated by their surfaces, such as those in heterogeneous catalysis, surface science, and coating/deposition applications. Implementation of this approach, which is termed perturbation-enhanced APXPS, at the SPECIES beamline of MAX IV Laboratory is discussed along with several experimental examples including individual pulses of N2 gas over a Au foil, a multi-pulse titration of oxygen vacancies in a pre-reduced TiO2 single crystal with O2 gas, and a sequence of alternating precursor pulses for atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on a silicon wafer substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number044101
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
  • Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation


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