Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Chemical and Physical Parameters on the Heron Island Coral Reef Platform

Samuel Kekuewa, Travis Courtney, Tyler Cyronak, Theodor Kindeberg, Bradley Eyre, Laura Stoltenberg, Andreas Andersson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Globally, coral reefs are threatened by ocean warming and acidification. The degree to which acidification will impact reefs is dependent on the local hydrodynamics, benthic community composition, and biogeochemical processes, all of which vary on different temporal and spatial scales. Characterizing the natural spatiotemporal variability of sea- water carbonate chemistry across different reefs is critical for elucidating future impacts on coral reefs. To date, most studies have focused on select habitats, whereas fewer studies have focused on reef scale variability. Here, we investigate the temporal and spatial seawa- ter physicochemical variability across the entire Heron Island coral reef platform, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for a limited duration of six days. Autonomous sensor measure- ments at three sites across the platform were complemented by reef-wide boat surveys and discrete sampling of seawater carbonate chemistry during the morning and evening. Vari- ability in both temporal and spatial physicochemical properties were predominantly driven by solar irradiance (and its effect on biological activity) and the semidiurnal tidal cycles but were influenced by the local geomorphology resulting in isolation of the platform dur- ing low tide and rapid flooding during rising tides. As a result, seawater from previous tidal cycles was sometimes trapped in different parts of the reef leading to unexpected bio- geochemical trends in space and time. This study illustrates the differences and limitations of data obtained from high-frequency measurements in a few locations compared to low- frequency measurements at high spatial resolution and coverage, showing the need for a combined approach to develop predictive capability of seawater physicochemical proper- ties on coral reefs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-268
JournalAquatic Geochemistry
Issue number4
Early online date2021 Oct 4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources

Free keywords

  • Coral reef
  • Ocean acidification
  • Carbonate chemistry
  • Heron Island
  • Great Barrier Reef
  • Metabolism


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