Temporal trends of sex disparity in incidence and survival of colorectal cancer: Variations by anatomical site and age at diagnosis

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Abstract

Purpose: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) varies by age, sex, and anatomical subsite. Few studies have examined the temporal trends of age-specific sex disparity in incidence and survival by age at diagnosis and anatomical site. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on all incident cases of CRC, using data derived from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Register between 1960 and 2014, including right-sided colon cancer (RCC), left-sided colon cancer (LCC), and rectal cancer. Male-to-female age-standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR) and male-to-female five-year survival rate ratio (SRR) were calculated as the main indicators. Furthermore, we performed joinpoint regression analyses to estimate average annual percentage change. Results: The overall male-to-female IRR was 1.05 for RCC, 1.31 for LCC, and 1.66 for rectal cancer. Male-to-female IRR increased steadily for RCC by an average of 0.4% per year until the mid-1990s and then decreased gradually by an average of 1.0% per year. LCC patients showed an increase of 0.6% per year since the mid-1970s. For rectal cancer, a non-significant random fluctuation was noted during the study period. The temporal trends of male-to-female IRR varied by age at diagnosis. The male-to-female SRR was 0.87 for RCC, 0.88 for LCC, and 0.86 for rectal cancer, which remained relatively stable during the study period. Conclusion: Sex disparity of CRC is age-, period-, and anatomical subsite-dependent. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying contributing factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-81
JournalClinical Epidemiology
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cancer and Oncology

Keywords

  • Colorectal cancer
  • Incidence
  • Sex disparity
  • Survival
  • Temporal trend

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