Testing human skin and respiratory sensitizers—what is good enough?

Anki Malmborg, Carl A K Borrebaeck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number241
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 1

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cell and Molecular Biology
  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy

Free keywords

  • Adverse outcome pathways
  • Genomics
  • Next generation in vitro tests
  • Skin sensitization


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