Fluorescence lidar is a non-invasive, remote sensing technique that makes it possible to extend the application of the laser-induced fluorescence technique to the outdoor environment where uncontrolled, external conditions must be met. Although initially developed for the investigation of marine environment and vegetation, in the past decade this technique has been successfully applied to the field of the cultural heritage. Among other applications, the detection and characterisation of photoautotrophic biodeteriogens has become very promising: the method is based on the detection of chlorophyll a fluorescence, while fluorescent accessory pigments can be exploited for a rough classification of the biodeteriogens present on the surface. Early experiments on monuments date back to the mid 1990s, when fluorescence lidar point measurements were conducted on the Cathedral and Baptistery of Parma, Italy. Subsequently, the technique has taken further advantage of the introduction of imaging capabilities in lidar instrumentation and this has led to the acquisition of hyperspectral fluorescence maps over extended areas of several monuments from distances as great as 80 m. Here, we present the main achievements obtained in the outdoor cultural heritage so far and the latest developments in the technique. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
- Civil Engineering
- Lidar remote sensing
- Photoautotrophic biodeteriogens
- Hyperspectral imaging
- Cultural heritage