The potential of salinity gradient energy based on natural and anthropogenic resources in Sweden

Mohamed Essalhi, Ahmet Halil Avci, Frank Lipnizki, Naser Tavajohi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents assessment of natural and anthropogenic sources of blue energy within Swedish territory to identify suitable spots for implementing new projects. The natural energy potential of salinity gradients was found to be higher in southwest Sweden, and a national energy resource potential of 2610.6 MW from seawater/river water mixing will be reduced to a technical potential ranging from 1044.3 MW to 1825.4 MW considering technical and environmental constraints. It has been found that the theoretical extractable energy potential in Sweden is equivalent to 13% of the total electricity consumption and 6.2% of the total final energy consumption by energy commodities. Anthropogenic water sources were also highlighted as promising low and high-concentration solutions for SGE extraction. Gotland was identified as an attractive location for generating salinity gradient power. The total salinity gradient power obtainable by mixing municipal wastewater with seawater in Sweden was estimated to be 11.8 MW. The most promising site for this process was determined to be Gryaab AB Ryaverket in Gothenburg, which accounted for 45.8% of the total national potential from anthropogenic sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118984
JournalRenewable Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Environmental Sciences
  • Chemical Sciences

Free keywords

  • Blue energy in Sweden
  • Natural and artificial sources
  • Pressure retarded osmosis
  • Reverse electrodialysis
  • Salinity gradient power


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