AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the association between the 'Shrunken pore syndrome' (SPS) and risk of death, 30 day rehospitalization, and health-related quality of life (QoL) in heart failure (HF) patients. SPS is characterized by a difference in renal filtration between cystatin C and creatinine, resulting in a low eGFRcystatin C /eGFRcreatinine ratio.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 373 patients hospitalized for HF [mean age 74.8 (±12.1) years; 118 (31.6%) women] were retrieved from the HeARt and brain failure inVESTigation trial (HARVEST-Malmö). Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formulas were used for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Presence of SPS was defined as eGFRcystatin C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine . In Cox regression multivariate models, associations between SPS, risk of death (median follow-up time 1.8 years), and risk of 30 day rehospitalization were studied. Associations between SPS and impaired QoL were studied using multivariate logistic regressions. In multivariate models, SPS was associated with all-cause mortality [124 events; hazard ratio (HR) 1.99; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.23-3.21; P = 0.005] and with 30 day rehospitalization (70 events; HR 1.82; CI 95% 1.04-3.18; P = 0.036). Analyses of QoL, based on a Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall score < 50, revealed that SPS was associated with higher risk of low health-related QoL (odds ratios 2.15; CI 95% 1.03-4.49; P = 0.042).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this observational study show for the first time an association between SPS and poor prognosis in HF. Further studies are needed to confirm the results in HF cohorts and experimental settings to identify pathophysiological mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3577-3586
JournalESC Heart Failure
Issue number5
Early online date2021 Aug 12
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems


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