The Structure and Classification of Botulinum Toxins

Min Dong, Pål Stenmark

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterpeer-review

6 Citations (SciVal)


Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of bacterial protein toxins produced by various Clostridium species. They are traditionally classified into seven major serotypes (BoNT/A-G). Recent progress in sequencing microbial genomes has led to an ever-growing number of subtypes, chimeric toxins, BoNT-like toxins, and remotely related BoNT homologs, constituting an expanding BoNT superfamily. Recent structural studies of BoNTs, BoNT progenitor toxin complexes, tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), toxin-receptor complexes, and toxin-substrate complexes have provided mechanistic understandings of toxin functions and the molecular basis for their variations. The growing BoNT superfamily of toxins present a natural repertoire that can be explored to develop novel therapeutic toxins, and the structural understanding of their variations provides a knowledge basis for engineering toxins to improve therapeutic efficacy and expand their clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBotulinum Toxin Therapy
EditorsScott M. Whitcup, Mark Hallett
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages23
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-66305-6
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameHandbook of experimental pharmacology
ISSN (Print)0171-2004

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Medicinal Chemistry


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