This article reviews the geology of the Sveconorwegian orogen in south Scandinavia and existing tectonic models for the Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic Sveconorwegian orogeny. It proposes an updated geodynamic scenario of large, hot, long-duration continental collision starting at c. 1065 Ma between proto-Baltica and another plate, presumably Amazonia, in a Rodinia-forming context. An orogenic plateau formed at 1280 Ma as a back-arc Cordillera-style plateau, and then grew further stepwise after 1065 Ma, as a collisional Tibetan-style plateau. Voluminous mantle- and crustal-derived Sveconorwegian magmatism took place in the hinterland in the west of the orogen, mainly: (i) bimodal magmatism at 1280–1145 Ma, overlapping with extensional intramontane basin sedimentation, (ii) the calc-alkaline Sirdal magmatic belt at 1065–1020 Ma, (iii) the hydrous ferroan hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) suite at 985–925 Ma and (iv) the anhydrous ferroan massif-type anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite (AMC) suite at 935–915 Ma. High-alumina orthopyroxene megacrysts in anorthosite imply mafic underplating at 1040 Ma and remelting of the underplates at 930 Ma. Overlapping with magmatism, protracted low-pressure, granulite-facies metamorphism reached twice ultra-high temperature conditions of 0.6 GPa-920 °C at 1030–1005 Ma and 0.4 GPa-920 °C at 930 Ma, respectively. These features imply shallow asthenosphere under the crust. Towards the foreland in the east, metamorphism shows an increasing high-pressure signature eastwards with time, with peak P-T values of 1.15 GPa-850 °C at 1150–1120 Ma in the Bamble-Kongsberg lithotectonic units, 1.5 GPa-740 °C at c. 1050 Ma in the Idefjorden lithotectonic unit, and 1.8 GPa-870 °C at c. 990 Ma in the Eastern Segment under eclogite-facies conditions. These are attributed to retreating delamination of the dense sub-continental lithospheric mantle and growth of the orogenic plateau towards the foreland. After c. 930 Ma, convergence came to a halt, the orogenic plateau collapsed, and 16 km of overburden was removed by extension and erosion.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Continental collision
- Orogenic plateau - lithospheric mantle delamination