Thin-Film Growth and Oxidation of Surfaces Under Relevant Pressure Conditions

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The growth of oxides and thin films is important in a wide range of applications, including coating technology, production of solar cell materials, and formation of dielectric layers in the semiconductor industry. These growth processes necessitate the interaction of a solid surface with a gas/vapor or liquid phase. The chemical processes that take place during the interaction of the solid with the second phase have direct impact on the properties of the oxides and films grown, which implies that a true atomic- and molecular-scale understanding of the processes is highly desirable. A true understanding can only be achieved from a monitoring of the phase interfaces at pressures that allow the chemistry to proceed, that is, at relevant pressures. Preferably, monitoring takes place in real time, allowing the identification of atomic and molecular species and a recording of the chemical kinetics. Such monitoring is possible by in situ and operando methods, that is, methods which can be carried out at relevant pressures rather than in vacuum. Limiting ourselves to the solid/vapor interface, we discuss a few of the most important experimental in situ and operando methods and provides examples for their application in the domains of oxidation and thin-film growth.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry
Subtitle of host publicationThin-Film Growth and Oxidation of Surfaces Under Relevant Pressure Conditions
EditorsKlaus Wandelt
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780128097397
ISBN (Print)9780128098943
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • Ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Atomic layer deposition
  • Chemical vapor deposition
  • In situ
  • Operando
  • Oxidation
  • Oxide growth
  • Polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy
  • Surface science
  • Surface x-ray diffraction
  • Thin-film growth


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