Translation and psychometric validation of the Persian version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges for assessment of craving to smoke among university students

Maryam Kazemitabar, Danilo Garcia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Even though tobacco is one of the most preventable causes of death worldwide, it endangers more than 8 million people yearly. In this context, meta-analyses suggest that a significant part of the general Iranian population over 15 years of age smoke and that there is a need for good screening tools for smoking cravings and urges in Iran. The present study reported the translation and investigated the psychometric properties (i.e., factor structure, validity, and reliability) of the Persian version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU) with 12 items in the Iranian context. Method. The translation process and content validity of the items were examined entirely in an expert panel using the Content Validity Index. The total sample of participants in which the translated version was tested consisted of 392 (172 female, 220 male, Mage = 22.31 years, SD = 2.90) university students who answered the QSU 12-item at the start of their participation in smoking cessation interventions. The QSU 12-item was firstly translated, then piloted using a subsample of 150 university students and finally validity and reliability of the instrument were investigated using a subsample of 242 participants. We tested the proposed models in the literature, that is, a 1-factor solution and a 2-factor solution with six items on each factor (Factor 1: desire/intention to smoke; Factor 2: relief of negative affect or withdrawal symptoms and anticipation of positive outcome). At last, we tested differences across differences in QSU-scores across different subgroups of individuals based on their demographics. Results. The results suggested that, in contrast to past studies, a modified 2-factor model, using five items for Factor 1 and 7 items for Factor 2, was the best fitting model (CFI =.95, RMSEA =.09, CI = 90%). Additionally, the QSU 12-item Persian version showed good convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency (Factor 1 =.94, Factor 2 =.97), ICC (average measure ICC =.95, CI = 95%, F(391, 4301) = 20.54, p <.001), concurrent validity (r =.71, p <.01), and discriminant validity (r = -.04, p >.05). Finally, subgroups based on gender, marital status, (un)employment, and educational level did not differed in their responses to the QSU 12-item. Conclusion. The Persian version of the QSU 12-item has satisfactory psychometric properties and, with a slight modification, it can be considered as a reliable and valid method to estimate smoking urges in the Iranian population. Moreover, the QSU 12-item seems appropriate to measure urge for smoking among groups of individuals with different sociodemographic backgrounds. Importantly, the QSU 12-item differentiates individuals' desire and intention to smoke from their anticipated relief of negative affect or withdrawal symptoms, which can be important for personalizing interventions targeting individuals who want to quit smoking.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12531
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 24

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Applied Psychology


  • Psychometric properties
  • QSU
  • Questionnaire on smoking urges
  • Reliability
  • Smoking cessation
  • Smoking craving
  • Smoking urges
  • Validity


Dive into the research topics of 'Translation and psychometric validation of the Persian version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges for assessment of craving to smoke among university students'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this