Typical ultrasound features of various endometrial pathologies described using International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

T. Van Den Bosch, J. Y. Verbakel, L. Valentin, L. Wynants, B. De Cock, M. A. Pascual, F. P.G. Leone, P. Sladkevicius, J. L. Alcazar, A. Votino, R. Fruscio, C. Lanzani, C. Van Holsbeke, A. Rossi, L. Jokubkiene, M. Kudla, A. Jakab, E. Domali, E. Epstein, C. Van PachterbekeT. Bourne, B. Van Calster, D. Timmerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Objective: To describe the ultrasound features of different endometrial and other intracavitary pathologies inpre- and postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding, using the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology. Methods: This was a prospective observational multicenter study of consecutive women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Unenhanced sonography with color Doppler and fluid-instillation sonography were performed. Endometrial sampling was performed according to each center's local protocol. The histological endpoints were cancer, atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN), endometrial atrophy, proliferative or secretory endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, endometrial polyp, intracavitary leiomyoma and other. For fluid-instillation sonography, the histological endpoints were endometrial polyp, intracavitary leiomyoma and cancer. For each histological endpoint, we report typical ultrasound features using the IETA terminology. Results: The database consisted of 2856 consecutive women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Unenhanced sonography with color Doppler was performed in all cases and fluid-instillation sonography in 1857. In 2216 women, endometrial histology was available, and these comprised the study population. Median age was 49 years (range, 19–92 years), median parity was 2 (range, 0–10) and median body mass index was 24.9 kg/m2 (range, 16.0–72.1 kg/m2). Of the study population, 843 (38.0%) women were postmenopausal. Endometrial polyps were diagnosed in 751 (33.9%) women, intracavitary leiomyomas in 223 (10.1%) and endometrial cancer in 137 (6.2%). None (0% (95% CI, 0.0–5.5%)) of the 66 women with endometrial thickness < 3 mm had endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia/EIN. Endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia/EIN was found in three of 283 (1.1% (95% CI, 0.4–3.1%)) endometria with a three-layer pattern, in three of 459 (0.7% (95% CI, 0.2–1.9%)) endometria with a linear endometrial midline and in five of 337 (1.5% (95% CI, 0.6–3.4%)) cases with a single vessel without branching on unenhanced ultrasound. Conclusions: The typical ultrasound features of endometrial cancer, polyps, hyperplasia and atrophy and intracavitary leiomyomas, are described using the IETA terminology. The detection of some easy-to-assess IETA features (i.e. endometrial thickness < 3 mm, three-layer pattern, linear midline and single vessel without branching) makes endometrial cancer unlikely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-172
Number of pages9
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging

Keywords

  • cancer
  • diagnosis
  • endometrium
  • hyperplasia
  • IETA
  • leiomyoma
  • polyp
  • sonohysterography
  • ultrasonography

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