Background: Chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis without polyps (CRSsNP) is characterized by a persistent inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa. The underlying cause is unclear but increasing interest has been directed toward changes in the sinonasal microbiome as a potential driver. Methods: Twenty-two patients diagnosed with CRSsNP were treated with antibiotics for 13 days, followed by 5 consecutive days of nasal microbiome transplants from healthy donors. Outcome measures were 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) questionnaire, total nasal symptom score (TNSS), endoscopic grading, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) next generation sequencing (microbiome analysis), and nasal lavage fluid analysis of inflammatory cytokines. Patients were examined at the start of the study and after antibiotic treatment as well as 10 days and 3 months after the transplant series. Results: At the end of the study, patients reported significantly reduced SNOT-22 scores and microbiome analysis showed significantly increased abundance and diversity. No significant change was observed for TNSS or endoscopic scoring. Conclusion: Nasal microbiome transplants obtained from healthy individuals and administered as nasal lavages to patients with CRSsNP are feasible. The patients reported significant and lasting reduction of symptoms and these findings were associated with a lasting increase in abundance and diversity of the local bacterial flora. The observations, which need to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials, may constitute a new treatment avenue for these difficult to treat patients where antibiotics only provide short lasting symptom control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)979-988
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number6
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Otorhinolaryngology

Free keywords

  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • SNOT-22
  • therapy
  • topical therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis


Dive into the research topics of 'Upper airway microbiome transplantation for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this