1. We examined the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of zooplankton in lake surface waters during the spring of 3 years in Lake Washington, U.S.A., a large lake with a high production of sockeye salmon fry. 2. We show large within-season and among-year variation in the horizontal distribution of temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, and zooplankton in the lake. The main pattern, a delay in zooplankton population increase from the north- to the south-end of the lake, recurred in each year and was persistent within each spring. 3. The delay is primarily caused by the development of a temperature gradient during spring warming, as cold mountain water enters the south end of the lake, while warm water enters the north end via a river draining a nearby lake. Climate factors, such as air temperature and precipitation during winter and spring, appear to influence the extent of the delay of zooplankton increase. 4. If the climate continues to warm, the temporal disconnection in zooplankton development between lake areas immediately influenced by cold river inflow and areas that are influenced by spring warming may increase in magnitude. Thus, the different areas of the lake may not contribute equally to fish production.
Bibliographical noteThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Limnology (Closed 2011) (011007000)
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Environmental Sciences