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Coherent X-ray imaging techniques, such as in-line holography, exploit the high brilliance provided by diffraction-limited storage rings to perform imaging sensitive to the electron density through contrast due to the phase shift, rather than conventional attenuation contrast. Thus, coherent X-ray imaging techniques enable high-sensitivity and low-dose imaging, especially for low-atomic-number (Z) chemical elements and materials with similar attenuation contrast. Here, the first implementation of in-line holography at the NanoMAX beamline is presented, which benefits from the exceptional focusing capabilities and the high brilliance provided by MAX IV, the first operational diffraction-limited storage ring up to approximately 300 eV. It is demonstrated that in-line holography at NanoMAX can provide 2D diffraction-limited images, where the achievable resolution is only limited by the 70 nm focal spot at 13 keV X-ray energy. Also, the 3D capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated by performing holotomography on a chalk sample at a mesoscale resolution of around 155 nm. It is foreseen that in-line holography will broaden the spectra of capabilities of MAX IV by providing fast 2D and 3D electron density images from mesoscale down to nanoscale resolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-229
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
Issue numberPt 1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
  • Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
  • Other Physics Topics

Free keywords

  • 2D and 3D X-ray imaging
  • coherent imaging
  • diffraction-limited storage ring
  • holography
  • holotomography


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