X-ray standing-wave spectroscopy: A powerful method for probing buried interfaces

Giuseppina Conti, Andrey Shavorskiy, Hendrik Bluhm, Slavomír Nemšák

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


In this chapter we present a non-destructive method for characterizing buried interfaces with high depth resolution combining X-rays standing wave and photoemission electron spectroscopy. This method incorporates the power of the X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy, which is a surface sensitive technique in the nanometer and sub-nanometer regime, with the depth selectivity of X-ray standing wave. This method has been successfully applied to study solid/solid interfaces and, more recently, solid/gas and solid/liquid interfaces, as we demonstrate on several examples. In addition, we also describe a few examples of liquid/solid interface characterization by standing wave X-ray fluorescence relevant for catalysis, energy science and biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Solid-Liquid Interfaces
PublisherScienceDirect, Elsevier
ISBN (Electronic)9780323856690
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics

Free keywords

  • Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Near total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Solid/liquid interface
  • Solid/solid interface
  • Standing wave X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence
  • X-ray photoemission


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