ICOS Sweden -

ICOS Sweden (Integrated Carbon Observation System)


Research areas and keywords

UKÄ subject classification

  • Climate Research

Type of infrastructure

  • Digital collections
  • Equipment

Name of national/international infrastructure this infrastructure belongs to

The national infrastructure ICOS Sweden (www.icos-sweden.se ) is the Swedish contribution to ICOS RI. ICOS Sweden is a consortium of six partners – Lund University (host), University of Gothenburg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala University, Stockholm University and The Polar Research Secretariat.


ICOS RI (www.icos-ri.eu) is a pan-European research infrastructure, which provides long-term measurements of harmonized and high precision scientific data on greenhouse gas fluxes in the atmosphere, over the ocean, and at the ecosystem level. ICOS RI is coordinated and integrated by the ICOS European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). ICOS ERIC was established by the decision of the European Commission in November 2015, with the statutory seat in Finland. ICOS is one of 13 currently existing ERICs. At present, ICOS RI is running over 100 stations in 12 countries.

Equipment and resources

Ecosystem stations measure fluxes of CO2, CH4, H2O and heat, together with the ecosystem variables needed to understand the processes behind the exchange of energy and greenhouse gases between the ecosystems and the atmosphere.
Atmosphere stations continuously measure greenhouse gas concentrations of CO2, CH4, CO and radiocarbon-CO2 in the atmosphere due to regional and global fluxes.
Ocean stations consist of a network of ships and fixed stations monitoring the carbon exchange between the surface ocean and the atmosphere, along with other variables such as ocean acidification, surface temperature and salinity.

ICOS Sweden is running 10 measurement stations – six ecosystem stations, three atmospheric stations and one marine station. Lund runs four of these stations – the forest sites Hyltemossa and Norunda that has one Ecosystem station and one Atmosphere station each. For the coming funding period, SMHI will join ICOS Sweden with FerryBox measurements on a ship cruising the Baltic Sea.

Digital and physical collections

ICOS Sweden data are submitted to the ICOS Carbon Portal (www.ICOS-CP.eu). ICOS Sweden data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international licence, which provides full open access following the FAIR principles.

Services provided

All data productas are available through the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Sweden data is available as near real time (NRT) data (machine controlled data sets, level 1 data). ICOS data, measured and processed following the ICOS protocols are available as NRT level 1 data and final quality controlled data products (level 2). Elaborated products are also produced through the ICOS Carbon Portal (Level 3).

Physical access is provided to the all ICOS Sweden sites for researchers’ field work, courses and excursions.

Management of the infrastructure

ICOS Sweden Board: Leif Anderson (GU) (Chair), Marko Scholze (LU), Hannele Hakola (FMI), Håkan Olsson (SLU), Birgitta Resvik (Fortum), Anke Thoss (SMHI)

Available for loan

Available for loan - internal and external

Terms of access:

The data is available through the ICOS Carbon Portal and is free of cost. Physical access to the sites is free of cost. A form for requesting access to the site is available at the homepage.

Recent research outputs

Anders Lindroth, Jutta Holst, Maj-lena Linderson, Mika Aurela, Tobias Biermann, Michal Heliasz, Jinshu Chi, Andreas Ibrom, Pasi Kolari, Leif Klemedtsson, Alisa Krasnova, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Meelis Mölder, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Matthias Peichl, Kim Pilegaard, Kaido Soosar & 4 others, Timo Vesala, Patrik Vestin, Per Weslien & Mats Nilsson, 2020 Sep 7, In : Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 375, 1810, p. 20190516

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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