Christoffer Harder

affiliated with the university, Ph.D

Research areas and keywords

UKÄ subject classification

  • Natural Sciences

Keywords

Research

I am a beneficiary of an international postdoc grant from the Danish Carlsberg Foundation (https://www.carlsbergfondet.dk/da/Ansoeger/Sog-Stotte/Opslag-og-Vejledning/Internationalisation-Fellowships).

My main research interest revolves around interactions between plants and fungi. Specifically, I work with the genus Mycena, which normally lives off degrading dead wood/litter, but has recently been found to be able to invade living plant roots. I spend a lot of time on my model system of various Mycena species and strains in culture with birch (Betula pendula). I study their interactions with microscopic methods, stable and radioactive isotopes, transcriptomics (RNA sequencing of expressed genes), and whole genomic sequecing - and otherwise, I try to spend as much time studying plants, fungi and soil in the field in Scandinavia and in the Arctic as I possibly can.

 Mycena fungi have turned out to have the largest genomes of all basidiomycetes (mushrooms), particularly Arctic species/strains thereof. Working together with SLU (Uppsala), INRA (Nancy), EVOGENE (Oslo), Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit (Szeged), Joint Genome Institute (San Fransisco)  and James Hutton Institute (Aberdeen), I am mapping their genomes and trying to identify specific genetic mechanisms controlling their various interactions with plants - and why their genomes are so enormous (5-10 times the average size of basidiomycetes).

In a broader scope, I hope to expand my focus area more generally into the many other species across the fungal tree of life who are "transgressing their niches" and show how fungal ecology is a much more dynamic and versatile phenomenon than what most textbooks presently describe.

Journal Publications (peer-reviewed): 

 Harder, C.B. and Aanen, D.K. (2009):"Unilateral nuclear migration in Basidiomycetes: Pheromone interaction, genomic conflicts and mating type reversion”. Fungal Biology Reviews23 (1-2), pp. 48 – 54.

 Harder, C.B, Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. and Frøslev, T.G. (2010):” A comparison between ITS phylogenetic relationships and morphological species recognition within Mycena sect. Calodontes in Northern Europe”, Mycological Progress 9, pp. 395-405.

 Harder, C. B., Lodge, D. J., Petersen, R. H., Hughes, K. W., Blanco, J. C., Frøslev, T. G. and Læssøe, T. (2012): Amyloidity is not diagnostic for species in the Mycena pearsoniana complex (Mycena sectio Calodontes). Mycological Progress 11, pp. 725-32.

 Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Frøslev, T.G, Ekelund, F., Rosendahl, S., and Kjøller, R. (2013):A three-gene phylogeny of the Mycena pura complex reveals 11 phylogenetic species and shows ITS to be unreliable for species identification. Fungal Biology 117(11), 764-75.

 Harder, C.B, Karpov, S.A. and Ekelund, F. (2014):“Ultrastructure, molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of bicosoecids (Heterokonta) with new taxa descriptions Regin rotiferus gen. et sp. nov. and Otto terricolus gen. et sp. nov.” Protist, 165(2), 144-160.

 Albers, C.N., Ellegaard-Jensen, L., Harder, C.B., Rosendahl, S., Knudsen,B.E., Ekelund, F., Aamand, J.(2015) :Groundwater chemistry determines the prokaryotic communty structure of waterworks sand filters. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 839-46.

 Ekelund, F.; Harder, C. B.; Knudsen, B. E.; Aamand, J (2015). Aminobacter MSH1-mineralisation of BAM in Sand-Filters Depends on Biological Diversity. PLoS One 10 (6), e0128838.

 Harder C.B., Rønn, R. Brejnrod A., Bass, D. al-Soud, A, and Ekelund, F.(2016).: Local diversity of heathland Cercozoa explored by in-depth sequencing. The ISME journal,doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.31.

 Andersen, S. C., Kiil, K., Harder, C. B., Josefsen, M. H., Persson, S., Nielsen, E. M., & Hoorfar, J. (2017). Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples. BMC microbiology, 17(1), 133.

Frølund, M., Wikström, A., Lidbrink, P., Abu Al-Soud, W., Larsen, N., Harder, C.B., et al. (2018) The bacterial microbiota in first-void urine from men with and without idiopathic urethritis. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0201380. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201380

Zamora JC, Svensson M, Kirschner R, Olariaga I, Ryman S, ..... Harder, C.B., et al. (+300 coauthors) (2018) Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA Fungus 9: 167–175.

Harder, C.B., Albers, C.N., Rosendahl, S., Aamand, J., Ellegaard-Jensen, L.,Ekelund, F (2019). Successional trophic complexity and biogeographical structure of eukaryotic communities in waterworks rapid sand filters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 95 (11).

Thoen, E, Harder, C.B.,  Kauserud, H, Botnen, S.,Vik, U, Taylor, AFS, Menkis, A, Skrede, I (2020) In vitro evidence of root colonization suggests ecological versatility in the genus Mycena. New Phytologist (Pub. online March 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16545).

 Gorczak, M., Pawlowska, J., ....Harder, C.B., Siedlicki, I. (14 coauthors) 18th Congress of European Mycologists Bioblitz 2019 – Naturalists contribute to the mycobiota and lichenobiota of Białowieża Primeval Forest (Acta Mycologica, in press).

Papers in review/under consideration:

Tanner, A.R., Parry, L.A., Hetherington, A.J., Harder, C.B.; James; SK., Kupriyanova, E.K., Sun, Y, Pisani, D., Vinther, J. Earthworm origins coincide with global ecosystem turnover and the retreat of Palaeozoic coal-forming forests. Reject-resubmit at Geobiology (late 2019).

Kaur, J., Harder, C.B., Sharma, J.  Endophytic bacterial communities of congeneric temperate orchids are distinct and uncoupled from soil, but linked to host phenology and population size. Presently for reconsideration in Molecular Ecology.

Conference papers/presentations:

Harder, C.B., Aanen, D.K.: ”Einseitige Kernwanderung: Bemerkenswerte Abweichungen des gewönhlichen Paarungsmusters in Basidienpilzen” (Unilateral nuclear migration in Basidiomycetes). Oral presentation (in German) at Tagung der deutschen mykologischen Gesellschaft, 2006, Tübingen, Germany. 

Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. Frøslev, T.G.:” Towards an unravelling of the Mycena pura complex”, XVth Congress of European Mycologists 2007, Saint Petersburg, Russia. 

Harder, C.B., Albers, C. N., Rosendahl, S., Aamand, J., Ellegaard-Jensen, L.,Ekelund, F.,: ”The Artificial Lake Bottoms on Water Treatment Plants" - The eukaryotic microfauna analysed by 454/Pyrosequencing”. Oral presentation at the Spring Conference 2013 in British Society for Protist Biology, London, England.

 Harder, C.B., Thoen, E., Botnen, S., Skrede, I., Hess, J.,, Kohler, A., Morin, E., Miyauchi, S.,Igor Grigoriev, I., Barry, K., Kuo,A. LaButti, K. Lipzen, A., Niskanen, T.,von Bonsdorff, T., Dima, B.,Weitz, H., Hesling, E., Jarvis, S., Hobbie, E., Taylor, A.F.S., Martin, F., Kauserud, H. Mycena - hidden opportunistic biotrophs. Presentation at IMC11 (Conference of the International Mycological Association), Puerto Rico, July 2018.

 Harder, C.B., Cook, K,Taylor, A.D., Taylor, D.L., Sharma, J. "Low mycorrhizal fungal  specificity of epiphytic orchids in a Neotropical rainforest". Presentation at the 18th congress of European Mycologists (XVIIICEM), Warzaw/Bialowieza, Poland.

Kaur, J., Harder, C. B., & Sharma, J. Characterization of endophytic bacterial communities in congeneric temperate orchids with soil, host phenology and population size as the predictors. In 2020 ESA Annual Meeting (August 3-6). ESA.

 

Poster presentations: 

Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. og Frøslev, T.G.:” Towards an unravelling of the Mycena pura (Prunulus purus) complex”, Annual scientific meeting of the British Mycological Society 2007.

 Ellegaard-Jensen, L., Albers, C. N., Harder, C. B., Rosendahl, S., Knudsen, B. E., Ekelund, F., & Aamand, J.. The prokaryotic community structures of waterworks sand filters are shaped by groundwater chemistry. 9th Annual Meeting of Danish Water forum, Copenhagen, Danmark, 2015.

 Thoen, E., Harder, C.B., Skrede, I., Menkis, A., Kauserud, H. The ubiquitous Mycenas -  purely saprotrophs or potential plant root symbionts? Ecology of Soil Microorganisms, Helsinki, May 2018.

Thoen, E., Harder, C.B., Skrede, I., Menkis, A., Kauserud, H. The ubiquitous Mycenas -  purely saprotrophs or potential plant root symbionts? IMC11 (Conference of the International Mycological Association), Puerto Rico, July 2018.

 Kuo, A., LaButti, K., Harder, C.B., Thoen, E, Taylor, A.F.S, Kauserud, H., Martin, F., Grigoriev, I. :The Bonnets (Mycena sp.): small mushrooms with big genomes. 30th Fungal Genetics Conference, Pacific Grove, March 2019.

Cook, K,. Harder, C.B., Taylor, A.D., Taylor, D.L., Sharma, J. Small scale spatial distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical tree canopy.  10h International Conference on Mycorrhiza (ICOM 10) Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, June 2019.

Popular Publications Without Peer -Review:

 Harder, C.B. (2006):”Svampenes hemmelige sexliv”(“The secret sex life of Fungi”, in Danish). Kaskelot 160, pp. 9-12.

 Geldmann, J., Harder, C. B., Rahbek, C., Harder, P., & Jensen, K. S. (2010). Naturens tilstand i Danmark (”State of the Danish nature”)

 Harder, C.B. (2018): " Biolog: Det kan vi lære af Norges erfaringer med ulve." (What Denmark can learn from Norway´s experience with reintroduction of Wolves). Altinget (Danish online newspaper - op-ed March 5th 2018).

 Harder, C.B. (2018): "Hykleriet fylder for meget i ulvedebatten"(Hypocrisy abounds in the debate about wolves), Altinget (Danish online newspaper - op-ed March 19th 2018).

 Harder, C.B. (2020): Hvorfor invaderer fredelige, trænedbrydende huesvampe pludselig levende planterødder?. (Why do seemingly peaceful wood-decaying Mycena fungi suddenly invade living plant roots?) Carlsberg Foundation annual report, 2020, chapter 12.

Research

I am a beneficiary of an international postdoc grant from the Danish https://www.carlsbergfondet.dk/da/Ansoeger/Sog-Stotte/Opslag-og-Vejledning/Internationalisation-Fellowships.

My main research interest revolves around interactions between plants and fungi. Specifically, I work with the genus Mycena, which normally lives off degrading dead wood/litter, but has recently been found to be able to invade living plant roots. I spend a lot of time on my model system of various Mycena species and strains in culture with birch (Betula pendula). I study their interactions with microscopic methods, stable and radioactive isotopes, transcriptomics (RNA sequencing of expressed genes), and whole genomic sequecing - and otherwise, I try to spend as much time studying plants, fungi and soil in the field in Scandinavia and in the Arctic as I possibly can.

Mycena fungi have turned out to have the largest genomes of all basidiomycetes (mushrooms), particularly Arctic species/strains thereof. Working together with SLU (Uppsala), INRA (Nancy), EVOGENE (Oslo), Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit (Szeged), Joint Genome Institute (San Fransisco) and James Hutton Institute (Aberdeen), I am mapping their genomes and trying to identify specific genetic mechanisms controlling their various interactions with plants - and why their genomes are so enormous (5-10 times the average size of basidiomycetes).

In a broader scope, I hope to expand my focus area more generally into the many other species across the fungal tree of life who are "transgressing their niches" and show how fungal ecology is a much more dynamic and versatile phenomenon than what most textbooks presently describe.


Journal Publications (peer-reviewed):

Harder, C.B. and Aanen, D.K. (2009):"Unilateral nuclear migration in Basidiomycetes: Pheromone interaction, genomic conflicts and mating type reversion”. Fungal Biology Reviews23 (1-2), pp. 48 – 54.

Harder, C.B, Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. and Frøslev, T.G. (2010):” A comparison between ITS phylogenetic relationships and morphological species recognition within Mycena sect. Calodontes in Northern Europe”, Mycological Progress 9, pp. 395-405.

Harder, C. B., Lodge, D. J., Petersen, R. H., Hughes, K. W., Blanco, J. C., Frøslev, T. G. and Læssøe, T. (2012): Amyloidity is not diagnostic for species in the Mycena pearsoniana complex (Mycena sectio Calodontes). Mycological Progress 11, pp. 725-32.

Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Frøslev, T.G, Ekelund, F., Rosendahl, S., and Kjøller, R. (2013):A three-gene phylogeny of the Mycena pura complex reveals 11 phylogenetic species and shows ITS to be unreliable for species identification. Fungal Biology 117(11), 764-75.

Harder, C.B, Karpov, S.A. and Ekelund, F. (2014):“Ultrastructure, molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of bicosoecids (Heterokonta) with new taxa descriptions Regin rotiferus gen. et sp. nov. and Otto terricolus gen. et sp. nov.” Protist, 165(2), 144-160.

Albers, C.N., Ellegaard-Jensen, L., Harder, C.B., Rosendahl, S., Knudsen,B.E., Ekelund, F., Aamand, J.(2015) :Groundwater chemistry determines the prokaryotic communty structure of waterworks sand filters. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 839-46.

Ekelund, F.; Harder, C. B.; Knudsen, B. E.; Aamand, J (2015). Aminobacter MSH1-mineralisation of BAM in Sand-Filters Depends on Biological Diversity. PLoS One 10 (6), e0128838.

Harder C.B., Rønn, R. Brejnrod A., Bass, D. al-Soud, A, and Ekelund, F.(2016).: Local diversity of heathland Cercozoa explored by in-depth sequencing. The ISME journal,doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.31.

Andersen, S. C., Kiil, K., Harder, C. B., Josefsen, M. H., Persson, S., Nielsen, E. M., & Hoorfar, J. (2017). Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples. BMC microbiology, 17(1), 133.

Frølund, M., Wikström, A., Lidbrink, P., Abu Al-Soud, W., Larsen, N., Harder, C.B., et al. (2018) The bacterial microbiota in first-void urine from men with and without idiopathic urethritis. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0201380. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201380

Zamora JC, Svensson M, Kirschner R, Olariaga I, Ryman S, ..... Harder, C.B., et al. (+300 coauthors) (2018) Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa. IMA Fungus 9: 167–175.

Harder, C.B., Albers, C.N., Rosendahl, S., Aamand, J., Ellegaard-Jensen, L.,Ekelund, F (2019). Successional trophic complexity and biogeographical structure of eukaryotic communities in waterworks rapid sand filters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 95 (11).

Thoen, E, Harder, C.B., Kauserud, H, Botnen, S.,Vik, U, Taylor, AFS, Menkis, A, Skrede, I (2020) In vitro evidence of root colonization suggests ecological versatility in the genus Mycena. New Phytologist (Pub. online March 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16545).

Gorczak, M., Pawlowska, J., ....Harder, C.B., Siedlicki, I. (14 coauthors) 18th Congress of European Mycologists Bioblitz 2019 – Naturalists contribute to the mycobiota and lichenobiota of Białowieża Primeval Forest (Acta Mycologica, in press).

Papers in review/under consideration:

Tanner, A.R., Parry, L.A., Hetherington, A.J., Harder, C.B.; James; SK., Kupriyanova, E.K., Sun, Y, Pisani, D., Vinther, J. Earthworm origins coincide with global ecosystem turnover and the retreat of Palaeozoic coal-forming forests. Reject-resubmit at Geobiology (late 2019).

Kaur, J., Harder, C.B., Sharma, J. Endophytic bacterial communities of congeneric temperate orchids are distinct and uncoupled from soil, but linked to host phenology and population size. Presently for reconsideration in Molecular Ecology.

Conference papers/presentations:

Harder, C.B., Aanen, D.K.: ”Einseitige Kernwanderung: Bemerkenswerte Abweichungen des gewönhlichen Paarungsmusters in Basidienpilzen” (Unilateral nuclear migration in Basidiomycetes). Oral presentation (in German) at Tagung der deutschen mykologischen Gesellschaft, 2006, Tübingen, Germany.

Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. Frøslev, T.G.:” Towards an unravelling of the Mycena pura complex”, XVth Congress of European Mycologists 2007, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Harder, C.B., Albers, C. N., Rosendahl, S., Aamand, J., Ellegaard-Jensen, L.,Ekelund, F.,: ”The Artificial Lake Bottoms on Water Treatment Plants" - The eukaryotic microfauna analysed by 454/Pyrosequencing”. Oral presentation at the Spring Conference 2013 in British Society for Protist Biology, London, England.

Harder, C.B., Thoen, E., Botnen, S., Skrede, I., Hess, J.,, Kohler, A., Morin, E., Miyauchi, S.,Igor Grigoriev, I., Barry, K., Kuo,A. LaButti, K. Lipzen, A., Niskanen, T.,von Bonsdorff, T., Dima, B.,Weitz, H., Hesling, E., Jarvis, S., Hobbie, E., Taylor, A.F.S., Martin, F., Kauserud, H. Mycena - hidden opportunistic biotrophs. Presentation at IMC11 (Conference of the International Mycological Association), Puerto Rico, July 2018.

Harder, C.B., Cook, K,Taylor, A.D., Taylor, D.L., Sharma, J. "Low mycorrhizal fungal specificity of epiphytic orchids in a Neotropical rainforest". Presentation at the 18th congress of European Mycologists (XVIIICEM), Warzaw/Bialowieza, Poland.

Kaur, J., Harder, C. B., & Sharma, J. Characterization of endophytic bacterial communities in congeneric temperate orchids with soil, host phenology and population size as the predictors. In 2020 ESA Annual Meeting (August 3-6). ESA.


Poster presentations:

Harder, C.B., Læssøe, T., Kjøller, R. og Frøslev, T.G.:” Towards an unravelling of the Mycena pura (Prunulus purus) complex”, Annual scientific meeting of the British Mycological Society 2007.

Ellegaard-Jensen, L., Albers, C. N., Harder, C. B., Rosendahl, S., Knudsen, B. E., Ekelund, F., & Aamand, J.. The prokaryotic community structures of waterworks sand filters are shaped by groundwater chemistry. 9th Annual Meeting of Danish Water forum, Copenhagen, Danmark, 2015.

Thoen, E., Harder, C.B., Skrede, I., Menkis, A., Kauserud, H. The ubiquitous Mycenas - purely saprotrophs or potential plant root symbionts? Ecology of Soil Microorganisms, Helsinki, May 2018.

Thoen, E., Harder, C.B., Skrede, I., Menkis, A., Kauserud, H. The ubiquitous Mycenas - purely saprotrophs or potential plant root symbionts? IMC11 (Conference of the International Mycological Association), Puerto Rico, July 2018.

Kuo, A., LaButti, K., Harder, C.B., Thoen, E, Taylor, A.F.S, Kauserud, H., Martin, F., Grigoriev, I. :The Bonnets (Mycena sp.): small mushrooms with big genomes. 30th Fungal Genetics Conference, Pacific Grove, March 2019.

Cook, K,. Harder, C.B., Taylor, A.D., Taylor, D.L., Sharma, J. Small scale spatial distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical tree canopy. 10h International Conference on Mycorrhiza (ICOM 10) Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, June 2019.

Popular Publications Without Peer -Review:

Harder, C.B. (2006):”Svampenes hemmelige sexliv”(“The secret sex life of Fungi”, in Danish). Kaskelot 160, pp. 9-12.

Geldmann, J., Harder, C. B., Rahbek, C., Harder, P., & Jensen, K. S. (2010). Naturens tilstand i Danmark (”State of the Danish nature”)

Harder, C.B. (2018): " Biolog: Det kan vi lære af Norges erfaringer med ulve." (What Denmark can learn from Norway´s experience with reintroduction of Wolves). Altinget (Danish online newspaper - op-ed March 5th 2018).

Harder, C.B. (2018): "Hykleriet fylder for meget i ulvedebatten"(Hypocrisy abounds in the debate about wolves), Altinget (Danish online newspaper - op-ed March 19th 2018).

Harder, C.B. (2020): Hvorfor invaderer fredelige, trænedbrydende huesvampe pludselig levende planterødder?. (Why do seemingly peaceful wood-decaying Mycena fungi suddenly invade living plant roots?) Carlsberg Foundation annual report, 2020, chapter 12.

Recent research outputs

Christoffer Bugge Harder, Christian Nyrop Albers, Søren Rosendahl, Jens Aamand, Lea Ellegaard-Jensen & Flemming Ekelund, 2019 Oct 17, In : FEMS microbiology ecology. 95, 11, 13 p., fiz148.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maria Frølund, Arne Wikström, Peter Lidbrink, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Niels Larsen, Christoffer Bugge Harder, Søren Johannes Sørensen, Jørgen Skov Jensen & Peter Ahrens, 2018, In : PLoS ONE. 13, 7, p. e0201380 19 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sandra Christine Andersen, Kristoffer Kiil, Christoffer Bugge Harder, Mathilde Hasseldam Josefsen, Søren Persson, Eva Møller Nielsen & Jeffrey Hoorfar, 2017 Jun 8, In : BMC Microbiology. 17, 8 p., 133.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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