A 2-year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes in patients operated on for knee osteoarthritis with tibial osteotomy
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Background: Tibial osteotomy is a treatment for younger and/or physically active patients suffering from uni-compartmental knee osteoarthritis. The open wedge osteotomy by the hemicallotasis technique includes the use of external fixation. The use of external fixation has several advantages, as early mobilization and the opportunity for optimal correction. However, the hemicallotasis technique has also been described as a cumbersome procedure for the patient. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate patient-relevant outcomes during the first 2 postoperative years. Especially the treatment period, during which external fixation was used, was closely monitored. Methods: In an uncontrolled study, fifty-eight consecutive patients, 30 men and 28 women ( mean age 54 years) were operated on by the hemicallotasis technique were evaluated with the patient-relevant outcome measure Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) preoperatively, during the treatment with external fixation, one week after removal of the external fixation, at 6 months, and at one and two years postoperatively. Results: At the 2-year postoperative follow-up, all subscales of the KOOS were improved ( p < 0.001), mostly in pain ( 41 - 80 on a 0 - 100 worst to best scale) and knee-related quality of life ( 21 61 on a 0 - 100 worst to best scale), compared to the preoperative status. Significant improvements in pain and other symptoms, function of daily life and quality of life were seen already during the treatment period ( mean 98 +/- 18 days) with the external fixation. More demanding functions such as kneeling, squatting, jumping and running, were improved first after extraction of the external fixation device and the pins. Conclusion: Tibial osteotomy by the hemicallotasis technique yields large improvement in self-rated pain, function and quality of life, which persists over two years. Surprisingly, large improvements occurred already during the immediate post-operative period when the external fixation was still used.