A Health-Conscious Food Pattern Is Associated with Prediabetes and Gut Microbiota in the Malmö Offspring Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Diet is a determinant of gut microbiota. Both diet and gut microbiota have been linked to metabolic diseases. Objective: We aimed to examine data-driven food patterns in relation to the prevalence of prediabetes and gut microbiota composition and food pattern-associated bacteria in relation to prediabetes. Methods: Food patterns were extracted using principal component analysis in 1726 individuals (aged 18-71 y, 55% women, mean BMI = 25.5 kg/m2) without diabetes from the population-based Malmö Offspring Study. The gut (fecal) microbiota was analyzed by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region). Prediabetes classification was based on fasting glucose ≥6.0 mmol/L and/or glycated hemoglobin ≥42 mmol/L at baseline and/or type 2 diabetes diagnosis during follow-up (0-3.8 y). Logistic regression was used to investigate cross-sectional associations with prediabetes, and the general linear model to examine associations between food patterns and bacterial genera. Results: Two food patterns, the Health-conscious and the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy patterns, were identified. Adherence to the Health-conscious pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.92; P-trend = 0.03) and with the abundance of several gut bacterial genera, of which the most robust findings were with a higher abundance of Roseburia and Lachnospira and with a lower abundance of Eubacterium. Roseburia was also associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes (OR comparing highest quintile with lowest: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01) and the association between the Health-conscious pattern and prediabetes was attenuated after adjustment for abundance of Roseburia and BMI. Adherence to the Sugar and High-Fat Dairy pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of prediabetes in women (P-trend across food pattern quintiles = 0.03). Conclusions: In this Swedish population-based study, a Health-conscious food pattern showed an inverse association with the prevalence of prediabetes. Potential underlying explanations may involve links between healthy diet and BMI, as well as gut microbiota, especially a higher abundance of Roseburia.

Details

Authors
Organisations
External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Keywords

  • Epidemiology, Food intake, Food patterns, Gut microbiota, Type 2 diabetes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-872
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume150
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes