A Quality Scorecard for the era of Industry 4.0

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A Quality Scorecard (QSC) performance measurement model is proposed to evaluate the quality aspects of an organization in Industry 4.0. To design a QSC for the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’, we examined existing measures regarding costs of quality items. The measurement system was refined by simplifying duplicate measures and incorporating quality elements considered in recent international standard revisions. This paper explains the QSC system and its practical use. Two key results were obtained. First, the QSC measures were reduced from a total of 139 potential measures to 15, 30, and 60 for simple, general, and detailed models, respectively. Second, a so-called QSC wheel, a virtual tool to assess weaknesses in existing performance measurement systems, was developed. The QSC wheel may effectively be used in analysing existing performance measurement systems, and may also be applied to evaluate qualitative performance levels in Industry 4.0.


External organisations
  • Sungkyunkwan University
  • Linköping University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary


  • cost of quality, Industry 4.0, QSC, qualitative performance measures, Quality Scorecard
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)959-976
Number of pages18
JournalTotal Quality Management and Business Excellence
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 29
Publication categoryResearch